The common entheogens will be grouped into four categories, corresponding to their chemical properties: Tryptamines, Phenethylamines, Cannabinoids, and Salvinorins. The occurrence, duration, and severity of both the signs and symptoms of administering substances belonging to these categories is, of course, depndent on the dose and route of administration, among other things.
By reading through the signs and symptoms of these substances, you can get an idea of what you might expect to experience when ingesting a certain type of substance. However, listing the signs and symptoms cannot do justice to the actual subjective experience when under the influence. It does not explain how the mind, beyond the obvious perception, is changed. To gain a better feeling of this subjective aspect, it is advisable to research experience reports, which are readily available online.